Nel tardo XIX secolo, gli (ora) sport olimpici della pallacanestro e della pallavolo sono stati inventati rispettivamente nelle città del Massachusetts occidentale Springfield e Holyoke. It has many sanctuaries such as the National Shrine of The Divine Mercy (Stockbridge, Massachusetts). [308] Members of both bodies are elected to two-year terms. Inoltre, il Dipartimento del Massachusetts di Conservazione e ricreazione mantiene un certo numero di parchi, sentieri e spiagge in tutto lo Stato. The state is home to two Division I FBS teams, Boston College of the Atlantic Coast Conference, and FBS Independent University of Massachusetts at Amherst. [248] Massachusetts is the second-largest cranberry-producing state in the union after Wisconsin.[249]. Despite its small size, Massachusetts features numerous topographically distinctive regions. [163], The State of Massachusetts has developed a plethora of incentives to encourage the implementation of renewable energy and efficient appliances and home facilities. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine. [308], The Congressional delegation from Massachusetts is entirely Democratic. [313], Federal court cases are heard in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts, and appeals are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. [224] Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance. The largest ancestry group in Massachusetts are the Irish (22.5% of the population), who live in significant numbers throughout the state but form more than 40% of the population along the South Shore in Norfolk and Plymouth counties (in both counties overall, Irish-Americans comprise more than 30% of the population). State animals and other symbols are outlined in Chapter 2 of the General Laws of Massachusetts. The phrase is often loosely translated into English as "By the sword we seek peace, but peace only under liberty." Massachusettsan (recommended by the U.S. GPO)[9], Massachusetts (/ˌmæsəˈtʃuːsɪts/ (listen), /-zɪts/), officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the Northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. [67], Massachusetts is home to 121 institutions of higher education. [403] The New England Revolution is the Major League Soccer team for Massachusetts and the Boston Cannons are the Major League Lacrosse team. [303] The state housed the first openly gay member of the United States House of Representatives, Gerry Studds, in 1972[304] and in 2004, Massachusetts became the first state to allow same-sex marriage. The white star represents Massachusetts as … Although much of Massachusetts had been cleared for agriculture, leaving only traces of old-growth forest in isolated pockets, secondary growth has regenerated in many rural areas as farms have been abandoned. [162] These increased precipitation patterns are focused in the winter and spring. Nonostante i Puritani si fossero trasferiti nel Nord America per poter professare liberamente il loro culto, al tempo stesso si dimostrarono intolleranti nei confronti di altre religioni: personaggi famosi come Anne Hutchinson, Roger Williams e Thomas Hooker dovettero abbandonare lo Stato perché perseguitati per le loro convinzioni. [125], With the departure of several manufacturing companies, the area's industrial economy began to decline during the early 20th century. This was followed by a round of tax limitations during the 1980s—a conservative period in American politics—including Proposition 2½. [342], Massachusetts has contributed to American arts and culture. Two pressure cooker bombs exploded near the finish line of the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, at around 2:49 pm EDT. [192] In the early 20th century, a number of[vague] African Americans migrated to Massachusetts, although in somewhat fewer numbers than many other Northern states. The European corn borer, a significant agricultural pest, was first found in North America near Boston, Massachusetts in 1917.[157]. [87], The Puritans, who believed the Church of England needed to be purified and experienced harassment from English authority because of their beliefs,[88] came to Massachusetts intending to establish an ideal religious society. The large coastal plain of the Atlantic Ocean in the eastern section of the state contains Greater Boston, along with most of the state's population,[44] as well as the distinctive Cape Cod peninsula. Most of Massachusetts has a humid continental climate, with cold winters and warm summers. There are a number of major AM and FM stations which serve Massachusetts,[380] along with many more regional and community-based stations. [77] John Adams in 1779 may have chosen the word for the second draft of what became the 1780 Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. La capitale, Boston, riunisce in sé il fascino del vecchio mondo e della metropoli americana rendendola una città unica che attira ogni anno migliaia di turisti. In 1636, Williams founded the colony of Rhode Island, and Hutchinson joined him there several years later. [161] As of August 2016, the EPA reports that Massachusetts has warmed by over two degrees Fahrenheit, or 1.1 degrees Celsius. [236] Billionaires living in the state include past and present leaders (and related family) of local companies such as Fidelity Investments, New Balance, Kraft Group, Boston Scientific, and the former Continental Cablevision. The population of the city proper is 692,600,[336] and Greater Boston, with a population of 4,873,019, is the 11th largest metropolitan area in the nation. [261] In 2018, Massachusetts consumed 1,459 trillion BTU,[262] making it the seventh-lowest state in terms of consumption of energy per capita, and 31 percent of that energy came from natural gas. [162], To combat this change, the state of Massachusetts’ Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs has outlined a path to decarbonization of the state’s economy. [227] The public University of Massachusetts (nicknamed UMass) features five campuses in the state, with its flagship campus in Amherst, which enrolls more than 25,000. [173], In late 2020, the Baker Administration released a Decarbonization Roadmap that aims for net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. [79] Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses,[80] and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. MBTA Commuter Rail services run throughout the larger Greater Boston area, including service to Worcester, Fitchburg, Haverhill, Newburyport, Lowell, and Plymouth. The official state song of Massachusetts is “All Hail to Massachusetts,” written by Arthur J. Marsh.It was unofficially adopted in 1966, but it was written into law by the state Legislature in September 1981. Il Massachusetts ha contribuito al servizio nazionale di molti politici di primo piano, compresi i membri della famiglia Adams e della famiglia Kennedy. The name translates roughly as "at or about the great hill." Massachusetts is also home to three of the top five U.S. News and World Report's best Liberal Arts Colleges: Williams College (#1), Amherst College (#2), and Wellesley College (#4). [162] This is almost twice as much as the average for the contiguous United States. [391][392] There are currently a total of 143 hospitals in the state. [331] Following the approval of a ballot question endorsing legalization in 2016, Massachusetts began issuing licenses for the regulated sale of recreational marijuana in June 2018. It is the most irreligious region of the country, along with the Western United States. [332], In 2020, the state legislature overrode Governor Charlie Baker's veto of the ROE Act, a controversial law that codified existing abortion laws in the event that the Supreme Court overturned Roe v. Wade, dropped the age of parental consent for those seeking an abortion from 18 to 16, and legalized abortion after 24 weeks, if a fetus had fatal anomalies. [179], The state's most populous ethnic group, non-Hispanic white, has declined from 95.4% in 1970 to 73.7% in 2014. [58][59] In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to legally recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court's decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health. [238] Boston-Logan International Airport is the busiest airport in New England, serving 33.4 million total passengers in 2015, and witnessing rapid growth in international air traffic since 2010. MassSave: A New Model for Statewide Energy Efficiency Programs.” 2012, PDF file. [222], Massachusetts's per-student public expenditure for elementary and secondary schools was eighth in the nation in 2012, at $14,844. Nel 1786, la Shays' Rebellion, una rivolta populista guidata da veterani scontenti della guerra rivoluzionaria, ha portato direttamente alla convenzione costituzionale degli Stati Uniti. The Massachusetts motto is in Latin. [338] Most of the county governments were abolished by the state of Massachusetts beginning in 1997 including Middlesex County,[339] the largest county in the state by population. [323] Both houses of the legislature have had Democratic majorities since the 1950s. [116] At first, the new industries drew labor from Yankees on nearby subsistence farms, and later relied upon immigrant labor from Europe and Canada. In Boston alone, costs of climate change-related storms will result in 5 to 100 billion dollars in damage. [395], The state of Massachusetts is a center for medical education and research including Harvard's Brigham and Women's Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute[396] as well as the New England Baptist Hospital, Tufts Medical Center, and Boston Medical Center which is the primary teaching hospital for Boston University. [288] Massachusetts has a total of 1,110 miles (1,790 km) of freight trackage in operation. The Boston/Manchester market is the fifth-largest in the United States. [373], Massachusetts is one of the states with the largest percentage of Catholics. Il territorio del Massachusetts nell'entroterra è collinare; è attraversato dal sistema degli Appalachi la cui vetta più alta è quella del Monte Greylock (1064 m). 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